Although the interest for archaeology dates from the end of the XIX century, when the professor of the Čačak Gymnasium organized the first archaeological excavation of praehistorical tumuli and collecting the objects from the sites in the Čačak surroundings, a real professional activity actually started after the foundation of the Museum in Čačak and the employment of the first educated archaeologist – Mrs. Milena (Djuknić) Ikodinović in 1955. On that way a systematic and a professional recording has started as well as the excavations of the archaeological sites, collecting, systematization and presentation of the material. Very successful work of the department was continued with: Mrs. Lidija Nikitović (1982- 2005), Mrs. Olivera Marković (1982-1997), Mr. Dejan Radičević (1999-2002), Mrs. Katarina Dmitrović (since 2001) and Mrs. Aleksandra Gojgić (since 2006).
A rich and diverse archaelogical collection, divided into three units - a praehistorical, a classical and a medieval collection - was formed in the course of previous 65 years. The most significant items from praehistory are represented by very early iron objects from Mojsinje and the luxurious findings from Atenica, while the antiquity collection is singled out by epigraphic monuments and the findings from the Late Roman necropolis in Čačak. There should be emphasized as well the Early Byzantine site of Gradina in Jelica, where a sacred and profane architecture was investigated in a large scale and there was found a significant amount of typical findings. An earring from Koštunići and a ring that belonged to the nobleman Nikola Kosijer represent the most prominent items of medieval collection.
The archaeological excavation done in previous period has given a relatively clear picture of cultural development on this territory since the older Neolithic phases untill the end of the Middle Ages. There should be especially emphasized the researches of tumuli (barrows) that represent a typical funerary structure dated to the Bronze and Iron Ages on a wider territory where belong western Serbia as well. Princely mounds from the Hallstatt period ensured for Čačak a highly ranked spot on the archaeological map of Europe.
During the previous decade the archaeological department aimed its activities on the excavations and processment of the material dated to the praehistoric and antiquity period, from the territory of the modern town and its vicinity. The excavation on the site on the churchyard of the Saint Virgin Mary Assumption in the periphery of Čačak are very significant, primarily thanks to the finding of the Late Antiquity mausoleum with very rich carving decoration, around wich was established a necropolis with biritually buried deceased. These extensive excavation resulted in an exhibition named as Late Roman Necropolis in Čačak in 2009. On the other side, series of papers and three monographs (Roman Epigraphic monuments from Čačak and its vicinity, Roman Baths in Čačak and Bronze Age Necropolises in the Čačak region), offered a systematized and professionaly elaborated material enabling its visibility to the other professionals and wider public.
The plans for further period are related especially on detailed surveys and procesment of the archaeological sites as well as enriching, professional maintainance and introducement of modern museological concepts.